The article presents preliminary results of the molecular genetic investigation of poplar (Populus nigra L., Ps laurifolia Ledeb. etc) hybridization naturally and in the urban beautification within Russian Federation. All the investigated species and hybrids of the black poplar and balsam poplar demonstrate wide geographic variation at the molecular level naturally and when being cultivated. At the same time different species and hybrids being agglomerated in the same region can have some similar genome regions. This, most probably, is associated with the intensive cross-species hybridization. This scheme corresponds with the idea of the reticulate evolution of the black poplar and balsam poplar.Keywords: cultivar, genome, hybridization, intergenic spacer of the chloroplast DNA trnH-PsbA, natural hybridization, poplar, poplar hybridization, Populus, reticulate evolution
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