In aspect of modern direction of potential impact assessment of alternative fertilizer materials on properties of soils variability of activity of the main gydrolase and oxide reductase enzymes in sod-podsolic sandy loamy soil (by WRB Retisols) and indicators of its effective fertility under influence of meliorative doses of bentonite clay is determined. Microfield research was conducted during 2015–2017 in conditions of the Nizhny Novgorod Region. Breed was brought once (2014) in an arable layer of earth in doses at rate of 3, 6 and 12 t/hectare. In years of carrying out research grew up winter wheat (Moskovskaya 39), barley (Veles) and peas of sowing campaign (Chishminsky 95). When determining enzymatic activity of soil and maintenance of batteries of plants in it used classical biochemical and agrochemical methods used in soil science. Under influence of bentonite clay high doses in soil observed considerable activization of enzymatic activity (protease (to 90%), cellulase (almost twice), phosphatase (up to 140%), phenol oxidase (up to 30%) and catalase (up to 70%)). As result, improvement of its agrochemical indicators is revealed, including increase in content of mobile compounds of phosphorus (on 21–31 mg/kg), exchange forms of potassium (on 32–41 mg/kg), available silicates (by 2–8 times in α-form and at 1,5–3,0 time in β-form), strengthening of nitrifying ability (on 2,6–4,1 mg/kg) and also relative persistence of maintenance of humic substances at level of control is established. Received results can be basis for introduction of bentonite in production field experiments and in subsequent for development of technology of bentonite clays use in agriculture of the Non-chernozem zone as meliorative substance, optimizing enzymatic activity of soils.Keywords: activity of gydrolase and oxide reductase enzymes to soil, bentonite clay, indicators of soil fertility, sod-podsolic sandy loamy soil (Retisols)
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